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Part 8 The Economy

In the north-western provinces of Spain, Gaul, Germany and Britain, the epigraphical record is slighter. Inscribed amphorae from Spain, from Baetica and Tarraconensis, may in the third century have brought oil from imperial estates for consumption in Rome and elsewhere (Crawford, I976, 7o; Manacorda, I977)· In Spain, as in Gaul, Africa and Italy, confiscations by Septimius Severus added to the imperial holdings in the province which were already significant under Nero. Imperial procurators and other officials are recorded here, but not the boundaries of the land.