chapter  12
34 Pages

Wars and External Relations, 509-345 BC

The half century from c. 525 to 475 BC was a period of turmoil and unrest in central Italy. The evidence hints darkly at political upheavals, violent changes of regime, tyrannies and the anarchic conflicts of warlords supported by private armies. The impression given by the written sources is borne out by archaeology. In Etruria a number of settlements, mostly smaller urban centres, disappeared at this time, either abandoned or destroyed. 1 The most notable victims were the 'seigneurial' centres at Acquarossa and Murlo, which were sacked at the end of the sixth century (cf. above, p. 93).