chapter  8
13 Pages


Having regard to the indigenous history of Sindh, it is not surprising that the administrative and governance structures have changed considerably over time. At one point in history, the boundaries of Sindh extended from Kandahar in the west to Kashmir in the north. The conquest of Sindh by the Arabs in A.D. 711 brought further administrative changes, with Multan and Kandahar being established as capitals. The administrative boundaries and structures continued to change up until the time of the British conquest. The British colonisers, too, continued to make significant changes, including the creation ofseveral new districts. 3

At the time of Pakistan's creation in 1947, Sindh was divided into eight administrative districts. As a subsequent section will elaborate, the majority of Sindhis as well as the political elite in the Sindh Muslim League, had anticipated that the creation of Pakistan would result first in providing Muslim Sindhis with greater economic opportunities and second, in granting Sindh administrative and provincial autonomy. However, the opposite was to happen. In July 1948 Karachi was taken away from Sindh and incorporated as a federally administrated area.4 This incorporation was to prove just the beginning of an increased federalist intervention in the role of the provincial government. In October 1955 Sindh ceased to exist as a province, as West Pakistan was merged into one single province known as 'One-Unit' - a merger that was confirmed by the constitution of 1956. In 1959 Islamabad was made the federal capital and Karachi incorporated in the province ofWest Pakistan in 1961.