The constitution of Pakistan sought to achieve the uplift and betterment of the less developed ethnic groups by resorting to affirmative action measures. By virtue of these laws, seats have been reserved for various provinces and administrative groups in professional institutions such as medical, law and engineering colleges and universities. A fixed quota is also set aside in jobs. These special measures were brought into force for a period of20 years from the commencing day (of the con-stitution) with the hope that by the end of this period, a certain measure of uniformity in development and access to jobs, etc. would have been achieved.