Energy, Transport and Urban Form in Australia
Introduction In terms ofthe proportion of the population living in cities, Australia is one of the world's most urbanised countries. Over 60% of Australians live in metropolitan areas of over 100,000 people and 40% live in the two biggest cities, Sydney and Melbourne. About two thirds of population growth is occurring in the five metropolitan capitals (Armstrong et aI., 1995). The Australian Urban and Regional Development Review (Wettenhall, 1994) estimated that the postwar spread of Australian cities exceeded one million hectares and cost $4.2-$5 billion annually compared to the $3-$5 billion invested annually in new manufacturing plant and equipment.