Compact Cities, Environmental Conflicts and Policy Strategies: Complexity as a Criterion for Decision Making
Introduction During the 1980s and 1990s there was a rise, and then a fall , of the compact city as a spatial concept, and as a concept that contributes to sustainability. At first, the compact city was thought of as a sound answer to pressing urban difficulties; it did not prove, however, to be an answer to all of them. Contrary to what once was expected, new spatial and environmental conflicts have been created due to compact city policies. Currently, attention has shifted to other, complex, difficulties which some call the 'dilemmas of the compact city'.