Providing safety, maintaining security, and preventing escapes are the major functions of custodial institutions. This requires such practices as counting, controlling movement, conducting searches, stafﬁng tower observation points, regulating contact with the outside, and managing inmate behavior. Some inherent restrictions are built into the physical plant itself. Others result from custodial procedures implemented by staff. All emphasize maintaining compliance with rules and regulations. When such compliance is not achieved, the results can be disastrous-ranging from escapes or violent assaults to riots or other disturbances. But custodial features represent only one aspect of maintaining institutional control. Often overlooked are the more informal, noncoercive controls emerging from the relationship established between correctional ofﬁcers and the inmate population.