chapter  11
The creation of values. Raymond Polin
Pages 7

Now the evolutionary (and involutionary) approach to ethics and value, which tries to show time as a factor which works, through one of its essential processes (whether conceived as the life-force or the death-force), is really a form of what English philosophers would condemn as the naturalistic fallacy, and is somewhat old-fashioned. The dichotomy of open and closed morality is, however, still very much a live question, and I want to discuss a book by M.Raymond Polin, La Création des valeurs,1 which takes it up in an existentialist rather than an evolutionist spirit. M.Polin deals in a much more detailed and precise way than Bergson with the difference between static and dynamic morality.