Tourism and Reindigenization
The readings in Chapter 4 showed how Caribbean and Pacifi c representations of tourism draw attention to a plurality of cultural interactions that confront exploitative mobilizations of ‘anthropology’s discarded discourse’ (Bruner 2005: 4). Kincaid, for instance, parodies tourism’s resuscitation of outmoded anthropology in her counter-ethnographic travelogue so as to underscore its bankruptcy in representing contemporary Antigua. In this light, Dolby asserts that A Small Place ‘disrupts the tourist paradigm, unfi xes culture and place, and zeroes in on the historical and contemporary routes [ . . . ] that wind their way between seemingly unlinked places’ (2003: 65). The celebratory tone of these diasporically infl ected comments nevertheless displays a tendency to elide the retrogressive fi xity associated with brochure discourse-a phenomenon that prompts Lyons to assert in his discussion of ‘antitouristic writing’ in the Pacifi c that: ‘Incarceration in both literal and fi gurative senses is at the heart of the complexes named here by “tourism”’ (2006: 178). What kinds of cultural articulations are required to negotiate forms of tourism that relegate native culture to the status of past history, actively erasing the possibility not only of its growth and transformation but its contemporaneous existence entirely? Addressing this question, the following readings build on Chapter 4’s exploration of touristifi cation and the need to assert historicized counter-narratives if cultural sustainability is to be practically consolidated. The chapter focuses on how ‘cultural identities are included and excluded from particular constructions of tourism’ (Burns 2006: 18) according to uneven power relations, examining tensions between cultural growth and imprisonment in one of the most highly touristed island states in the world, Hawai‘i. This involves considering how forms of ‘reindigenization’—strategic and processual-play important roles in representations of native Hawaiian tourism involvement.