War or Peace? Th e Range of Possible Ethnic and Other Identity Confl icts
There exist many di erent kinds of identity con icts within states striving to be nations. ese range from very mild di erences between regions, language groups, or religions that do not result in con icts within modern nations all the way to con icting identities so strong and irreconcilable that they end up with civil war or even ethnic cleansing and genocide. e possible outcomes with some illustrative examples are summarized in Table 3.1 (parts A through F). Examples are from the 20th and 21st centuries.