The Structure of Semantic and Phonological Networks and the Structure of a Social Network in Dreams
W e are all baffled by the vivid events in dreams, unconnected toevident stimuli. Readers of this volume may be reminded of theDeese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which produces an illusion that a word was presented, when it was not. In the paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995), subjects are presented with a list of words such as bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake,. . . . The word sleep is not on the list. Yet recall and recognition for sleep are comparable to that for words actually presented. In their experiments, Roediger and McDermott asked subjects who indicated during recognition that a word had been presented to further indicate whether they had a vivid memory of its presentation (a remember judgment) or whether they were sure the word had been presented, but had no vivid memory of its presentation (a know judgment). The procedure is due to Tulving (1985). The proportion of vivid memories reported for critical nonpresented words was comparable to that for actually presented words. Strong associations in memory, when focused, can produce a false memory, comparable to a real memory.