chapter  2
20 Pages

Retrieval as a Self-Limiting Process: Part II

Across much of the history of systematic research on human memory, threestages critical to the memory process have been postulated: trace forma-tion, trace storage, and trace utilization or retrieval (see, e.g., Melton, 1963). It was not, however, until Tulving and Pearlstone’s (1966) seminal study that the fundamental importance of retrieval processes in human memory-and the need to distinguish the conditions affecting storage from those affecting retrieval-became clear. By providing cues to participants during the recall of items from categorized lists, Tulving and Pearlstone were able to demonstrate that what is stored or available in memory cannot be indexed in a precise or reliable way by what is recallable or accessible at a given point in time.