The Evolutionary Bases of Social and Moral Emotions: Ross Buck
T his chapter considers the deep evolutionary roots of motivation, emo-tion, and communication with the goal of examining the essentialnatures of cooperation and competition from the viewpoint of Developmental-Interactionist theory (Buck, 1985, 1999). We ﬁrst consider deﬁnitions of motivation, emotion, and communication. I then argue that fundamental functions of motivation and emotion are revealed in behaviors of microbes, with special attention to the evolution of altruism, with empirical evidence of “paleoaltruism” demonstrating communication and individual sacriﬁce for group beneﬁt in microorganisms. Finally, this chapter advances a view of the dynamic emergence via interaction of systems of primary social and moral emotions.