chapter  11
20 Pages

1Chapter 1 Reconciling Strong Genetic and Strong Environmental Influences on Individual Differences and Deficits in Reading Ability

Reading is a uniquely human activity that is strongly dependent both on our shared genetic endowment that distinguishes us from other primates and on the environment, typically through universal and formal reading instruction in modern societies. Thus, strong genetic and strong environmental influences are both apparent when we think of reading as a species-specific and culturally dependent skill. It is less obvious how genes and the environment influence individual differences and deficits in reading ability within modern societies that support universal reading education.