chapter  2
17 Pages

MARXISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Theprocessofeconomicdevelopmentcentersontheapplicationofscientific,engineeringandtechnologicalknowledgeto production.SimonKuznets,theleadingempiricalstudentof thedevelopmentexperience,writesthatthe"massapplication oftechnologicalinnovation...constitutesmuchofthedistinctivesubstanceofmodemeconomicgrowth."1Countrieswhich havebecomedeveloped,accordingtoKuznets,aretheones whichhavemanagedtotakeadvantageofthepotentialof modemtechnology.Wherethispotentialhasbeentappedthe characteristicsofdevelopmenttoohaveappeared:population growthhasoccurred,percapitaincomeincreased,therangeof productionwidened,theindustrialartdoccupationstructureof thelaborforceshiftedawayfromblue-collar,andagricultural workandproductivityincreased.Irtthiscontext,therefore, underdevelopmentisseenasthefailuretoapplymodem technologytoproduction.Forthepoorcountriesoftheworld, underdevelopmentiscausedbytheirfailuretoutilize.modem technologyextensiwelywhiletheirfutureeconomicadvance iscontingentupontheirabilitytoutilizesuchproduction methods.