chapter  3
11 Pages

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN WELFARE

DespitehisconcernwithdevelopmentitisclearthatforMarx anadvanceintheproductiveforcesimpliedlittlewithregard tolivingstandards.Indeed,thethrustofMarx'scritiqueof capitalismliespreciselyinthecontrastbetweentheexpansion ofthecapacitytoproduceandthelimitedextenttowhich thosebenefitswillberealizedbythepopulationwithinthat system.AsheandEngelswroteinTheCommunistManifesto, "thebourgeoisie,duringitsruleofscarceonehundredyears, hascreatedmoremassiveandmodemcolossalproductiveforces thanallprecedinggenerationstogether,"but"themodem labourer...insteadofrisingwiththeprogressofindustry, sinksdeeperanddeeperbelowtheconditionsofexistenceof hisownclass."1Thus,infollowingMarx,anexpansioninthe forcesofproduction-theprocessofeconomicdevelopment - canbediscussedwithoutassumingthattherewerepositive welfareimplicationsassociatedwiththatgrowth.