chapter  3
39 Pages

Measuring bi-polarization and polarization: a survey

There is, however, no agreement on how the relative importance of the middle class should be measured. Foster and Wolfson (1992; 2010) suggested four distinct steps in measuring the middle class: (i) choosing a 'space' (individual/family/household income, salary, expenditure etc. in 'incomespace' or 'people-space'); (ii) defining the middle (e.g., the median or the mean income); (iii) fixing the range around the middle (identifying the middle class by fixing a percentage interval above and below the median or the mean); (iv) aggregating the data.