chapter  VII
SOCIALIST ECONOMIC VALUES
Pages 9

Superficially,nodoubt,Marxappearstohavewritten agreatdealaboutEconomics,puttingforwardatheory ofvalueradicallydifferentfromthatoftheclassical economistswhomheattacked,andtherewithatheory of'surplusvalue'thatcastthedoctrineofclass-exploitationintoaformbasedonhisrestatementoftheclassical economicdogmas.Inallthis,however,Marxwasin factengaginginadialecticalargumentwiththeRicardians aboutwhatreallyfollowedfromtheirownfundamental assumptions.Hewasseekingtodemonstratethatthe capitalistsystemresteduponarobberyofthepropertyless classes;andhewasnotdiscussingatallhowthings wouldworkoutif'theexpropriatorswereexpropriated' andthecommonmanwereabletoenterintohisinheritance.ClassicalEconomicssetouttobemainlyadiscussion

oftheforcesdeterminingprices,includingnotonlythe pricesofthings,butalsothepriceofhumanlabour. Marx,havingshownthatthepriceoflabour-powerwas alwayslessthanthevalueoftheproductoflabourbecause theownersofthemeansofproductionalwaystookashare ofthelabourer'sproductforthemselves,wasbutlittle interestedinthemechanismswhichactuallydetermined themarketpricesofthevariouskindsofcommoditiesincludinglabourpower.Solittlewasheconcernedthat noaccountoftheworkingofthesemechanismsunder Capitalismappearsuntilwegettothethird(posthumous) volumeofCapital;andwhenwedogettothissubjectwe findthatwhatMarxhastosayaboutitdifferslittlein essentialsfromwhatjohnStuartMillhadsaidbeforehim.