The Neurosciences, Conscience and the Soft-Wired Brain
If the genome is the production center of the organism’s response machinery, the brain is where all the decisions about what to produce are made. The brain is where genetic dispositions and environmental experiences are integrated and become one. Much more so than the genome, the brain physically captures the environment in its circuitry, so if we want to understand the impact of different environments on behavior, criminology can ill afford to continue to ignore the brain. As Robinson (2004: 72) asserts, any theory of behavior “is logically incomplete if it does not discuss the role of the brain.” The insights we can derive from the neurosciences will not only strengthen criminology, they will also strengthen our claims for preventative intervention.