chapter  24
9 Pages

The power of expectations: Their infl uence on focus, modality, and style

Research has demonstrated the powerful effect that expectations have on the outcome of interventions-whether educational, surgical, pharmacological, medical, or psychological. When teachers were told at the beginning of the school year that certain of their students had high IQs, by the end of the school year, those students were outperforming the otherseven when in truth the students did not start out with an IQ advantage (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968).