Fourth Species in Two Voices
After Fux’s fictional student Joseph learns to handle two notes against one, he is instructed in third species: four quarter-notes against one whole-note. Third species, however, deals with details of the melodic line rather than with basic concepts. For that reason it seems best to postpone the introduction of smaller note values to Chapter 14, in which we will be studying melody and rhythm in the style of Palestrina. For now we can go on to fourth species: the introduction of syncopes along with the concept of the suspension. A syncope is a note that begins on a weak beat and is held over to a strong beat.