Sanctions and their eﬃcacy
Notwithstanding the fact that the debate on the eﬃcacy of sanctions has been in existence for four decades, the investigation of their eﬃcacy has not yet yielded satisfactory results. The determinants for the success and failure of sanctions have not yet been ascertained. The inherent diﬃculty of the task has been further compounded by a transformation of the instrument itself. Classical comprehensive trade embargoes have given way to more sophisticated measures, so-called ‘targeted’ sanctions. After addressing some essential deﬁnitional questions, this chapter outlines the progress made in International Relations (IR) scholarship in identifying the determinants of the success and failure of sanctions. It then proceeds to describe the emergence of the new concept of targeted sanctions, and to discuss its implications for the sanctions debate, paying special attention to the case of sanctions imposed by the EU.1
The ﬁnal section of the chapter discusses a number of methodological issues related to the analysis and measurement of success, and identiﬁes ﬂaws, with a view to obviating them in the design of the present study. What are targeted sanctions? How do they diﬀer from classical embargoes? How have they aﬀected IR scholarship on sanctions evaluation, and how well has the methodology of evaluation been adapted to study their impact?