3Chapter 1 Neurolinguistic and Neurocognitive Considerations of Language Processing in Bilingual Individuals
Bilingualism and multilingualism are a common occurrence in today’s world. Many bilinguals (speakers of two languages) and multilinguals or polyglots (speakers of more than two languages) in multilingual population centers receive speech therapy for acquired language problems or aphasia resulting from neurological damage. Interpretation of the heterogenous clinical language proles exhibited by bilingual and multilingual speakers with aphasia has stimulated the examination of the neurological correlates of language processing in these individuals. Aphasic bilingual and multilingual persons generally show the same extent of impairment in both languages after a neurological insult (parallel recovery pattern). Yet, a considerable number of bilinguals may demonstrate a variety of poststroke language restitution proles in which there is uneven recovery of the two languages (nonparallel recovery patterns). For example, both languages may be affected, though one more than the other (differential recovery); both languages may be alternatively affected over periods of time (antagonistic recovery); or only one language may be available after the stroke (selective recovery; Paradis, 2004).