chapter  6
28 Pages


Th e concept of engaged learning is widely accepted and advocated in higher education (Kuh, 1995, 1996; Kuh & Hu, 2001; Kuh, Kinzie, Schuh, Whitt et al., 2005). Academic engagement typically includes working with peers and faculty inside and outside of classes along with other forms of engagement that involve active learning. Social engagement during college-involvement in civic and social groups-can be considered vital to the formation of social capital. If low-income students have to work long hours to pay for college or must study excessively to keep up academically, fi nding the time for engagement in academic and civic activities outside of class is diffi cult. First-generation students oft en lack the knowledge of the college environment needed for academic and social engagement; guaranteed aid eases the diffi culty of acquiring this knowledge about system navigation.