Self-criticism is very common in shame. Self-criticism has been associated with a range of mental-health dif®culties and in psychosis about 70% of voices are hostile and critical (Gilbert & Irons, 2005). Self-criticism has various origins and functions. Figure 7 offers a brief model of self-criticism and areas that clinicians can explore. To explore you can ask: ``When was the ®rst time you became aware of being self-critical? What was happening? What was the frustration, disappointment or dashed hope/dream/goal? Why was that hope/dream/goal of importance to you?'' In other words, you are looking at the threats that were around when self-criticism started.