We know that different psychologies (motives, emotions and cognitive competencies) have been laid down at different times in evolution. For example, capacities for sex, ®ghting, hunting and gaining and defending a territory can be traced back to the reptiles over 500 million years ago and before them. It was not until the evolution of the mammals (about 120 million years ago) that psychologies (supported by emotions and motivational systems) for infant-caring, alliance formation, play, and status hierarchies came into the world. It was not until about 2 million years ago that the competencies for complex thinking, re¯ection, theory of mind and having a sense of self and selfidentity, began to emerge. So, brains have evolved in a series of stages, making our minds full of a variety of different motives and emotions originating at different times, many of which can con¯ict.