The previous chapters have largely focused attention on cognition —the mental processes used to code, store, transform and retrieve information, ideas and knowledge. Metacognition operates at a different level and has been described as thinking about thinking (Flavell, 1976). Metacognition helps us to know or decide which mental process(es) to use in a given situation, at a given time and for a particular reason-hence the tag of thinking about thinking. We are all metacognitive. However, the level of metacognition employed or, put another way, the range of metacognitive skills we have and use, varies from individual to individual and from context to context.