chapter  5
18 Pages

EU democracy aid to South Africa: The first ten years of democracy (1994–2004)

Introduction The previous two chapters have analysed, respectively, the EU’s approach to bottom-up democracy promotion through civil society aid and the state of civil society in South Africa after the transition to democracy. Building on these elements, the present chapter turns to the overall analysis of the EU’s policies of democracy promotion in South Africa. Before the first democratic elections of 1994, the EU supported the struggle against apartheid through specific economic sanctions and civil society aid targeting South African NGOs. With the transition to a democratic government, the political and economic relations normalized and a new season of foreign direct investment, trade cooperation, and political dialogue was inaugurated. According to the data published in the 2007-2013 Country Strategy Paper, the EU is South Africa’s most important development partner, providing 70 per cent of all development aid to the country (European Commission 2007).1 In terms of development cooperation (which also includes democracy aid), the EU committed about €870 million during the 2000-2006 programming phase. Nevertheless, the most recent evaluation of the EU’s development strategy in the country has questioned its efficiency, impact, and sustainability (European Commission 2007).2