Basic Procedures Based upon Principles of Learning
This chapter outlines the major and most basic behavioral procedures built upon the principles of learning. It also outlines basic applied behavior analysis procedures and specifies the critical differences between specific procedures and related principles of learning. If a reinforcement procedure is used to try to increase a particular behavior, such as eye contact, and there is no increase in the future frequency of eye contact, then a different procedure or consequence must be implemented to try to get the intended effect. A punishment procedure does not necessarily mean that an aversive is used. The principle of punishment would only be exemplified if the procedure, in fact, reduced the future frequency of errors. An extinction procedure involves withholding the presentation of a consequence which has usually followed a behavior to try to reduce the future frequency of a response. For an extinction procedure to be effective, the actual reinforcer for a response must be correctly identified and then withheld.