chapter  7
25 Pages

Drive for muscularity: Christian Edwards, David Tod, Todd G. Morrison and Gyozo Molnar

The contemporary ideal male physique is large and muscular, and has become more

so over the last 40 years (Pope, Phillips, & Olivardia, 2000). This ideal is a prevalent

and socially constructed image in today’s Western societies (Baghurst, Hollander,

Nardella, & Haff, 2006). In addition to aesthetic advantages, some individuals per-

ceive that males with muscular physiques possess various positive traits and experi-

ence success in other domains of life (Ryckman, Butler, Thornton, & Lindner,

1997). Given the prevalence of this ideal and the importance it is accorded, it is

unsurprising that significant numbers of Western males perceive discrepancies

between their current and desired muscularity levels (Frederick et al., 2007).