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Unit 5: Refusing in Japanese

A refusal can be a response to a request, an invitation, an off er, or a suggestion. What is common to most refusals is the fact that the speaker is communicating a potentially undesirable message as far as the listener is concerned. What strategies then should be used to mitigate a refusal in Japanese? Are there any unwritten rules you should know in making and interpreting refusals in Japanese?