K-adapted species Organisms with population growth inﬂuenced by internal and external factors. Large animals (such as whales and elephants) and large predators fall into this category. These species have few offspring and stabilize their population size based on the carrying capacity-the maximum number of individuals of any species that can be supported by a particular ecosystem on a long-term basis. When the population exceeds the carrying capacity, it dies back with a fast decrease in the population
Kaplan turbine A propeller-type water turbine that has adjustable blades, developed in 1913 Viktor Kaplan of Austria. The Kaplan turbine
was an evolution of the Francis turbine. Its invention allowed efﬁcient power production in low-head applications that was not possible with Francis turbines. Kaplan turbines are widely used in high-ﬂow, low-head electrical power production. They cover the lowest-head hydrosites and are especially suited for high-ﬂow conditions. See also: Francis turbine; Water turbine
Kerosene-type jet fuel Kerosene-based product having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F (204 °C) at the 10% recovery point and a ﬁnal maximum boiling point of 572 °F (302 °C), meeting American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) speciﬁcation D 1655 and US Military speciﬁcations MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D. It is used for commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines. See also: Jet fuel
Ketones Toxic chemical. 1. Ketones are water clear, highly mobile liquids with a characteristic odor. They are chemically very stable. Due to the carbonyl group, ketones are hydrogen acceptors and have very good solvency. Petroleum companies produce many ketones from propylene and butylene, covering the whole range of volatilities. Examples are acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). Ketones are used in surface coatings, adhesives, thinners, printing inks and cleaning agents. Other industrial uses are in pharmaceuticals, extraction, dewaxing, and as chemical intermediates (methyl methacrylate (MMA), bisphenol A, isophorone).