Since conflict can be very destructive, how to wind down the rage of violence and bring normalcy to inter-personal, inter-group, inter-state relations has become an important concern. Various efforts can be made to promote conflict prevention, to bring about the de-escalation of an unending struggle and eventually the building of peace. In particular, long-term relations are also affected by structural, institutional, and cultural dimensions of conflict. In an attempt to bring an end to a conflict peacefully, it is key to understand various aspects of conflict transformation that constitute the essential conditions for resolution. This chapter reviews different types and categories of conflict relations and various processes that alter conditions for violent struggle. The movements of protracted conflict, for instance, in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Palestine are organic, not static and often amorphous. The maintenance of oppressive relations by torture, killing, and other abuses as well as uncontrolled violence draws a cloud over the prospect for peace.