Even though it is in many ways de®ned as ¯uid and changing and the concept of the organism is more important (Point 11), even within the person-centred tradition the concept of `self' is criticised, questioned and/or found wanting. For example, Holdstock (1993: 229±252) indicates that it may be necessary to revise the person-centred concept of the self in order to take account of how the self is perceived in other cultures and paradigms. Of the concept of self in other cultures, Holdstock (p. 230) writes:
the extended concept of the self may even include the deceased as well as the larger universe of animals, plants and inanimate objects. Power and control are not considered to rest predominantly with the individual but within the ®eld of forces within which the individual exists.