From Tokyo to London: The ‘Lead Nation Approach’
In November 2001, an international coalition led by the United States overturned the Taliban regime. The Taliban immediately withdrew in the territories along and beyond the Pakistani border. In the years to come, they would resurge and start long and exhausting guerrilla warfare against the new Afghan government and its international allies. After the Taliban’s defeat, in the first days of December 2001, the representatives of the winning factions met in Bonn under the auspices of the SRSG Lakhdar Brahimi to draw up the political future of Afghanistan. The Bonn meeting was established following a formal invitation issued by the Security Council in Resolution 1378 of 14 November 2001. After harsh negotiations among the parties and under substantial pressure by the international partners, the Afghan delegates signed an agreement on 5 December 2001.2 The agreement was further welcomed by the Security Council in Resolution 1383 of 6 December 2001.