Adjustment of employment and employment practices
Introduction Previous chapters have pointed out how changes in Japanese employment practices have been widely expected as well as constrained. This is well illustrated by the different expectations concerning change in recent years. Early contributions (e.g. Ahmadjian and Robinson 2001; Chuma 1997; Dirks 1999; Hirakubo 1999; Ornatowski 1998; Whittaker 1990) focused predominantly on the core practice of lifetime employment. However, continued support caused this initial debate to wither a little. In later years, analyses stressed the relevance of institutional continuity while focusing on specific developments like the introduction of performancerelated pay and the rise in non-regular employment (e.g. Blomström and LaCroix 2006; Inagami and Whittaker 2005; Jacoby 2004; Rebick 2005; Vogel 2006).