Dual Combat and Sexual Trauma During Military Service
Combat deployment is one of the most stressful and dangerous experiences associated with serving in the military. The U.S. military has been engaged in combat operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, and neighboring countries in service of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). These deployments are marked by intense urban combat, persistent risk of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and roadside bombs, multiple and prolonged tours, and the omnipresent threat involved in differentiating ally from enemy combatant in these settings. Many deployed OEF/OIF Veterans report multiple exposures to combat trauma, which may lead to substantial physical and mental injuries as well as reductions in quality of life (Hoge, Auchterlonie, & Milliken, 2006; Hoge & Castro, 2006; Milliken, Auchterlonie, & Hoge, 2007; Schnurr, Lunney, Bovin, & Marx, 2009).