International experiences in ecosystem management
Introduction This chapter reviews international experiences for ecosystem management as well as their finance mechanisms. We discuss how policy options can be classified and then proceed with more detailed sections on international experiences with specific policy and financing options. We then provide some insights from two specific case studies that were chosen as being particularly pertinent for the case of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Lastly, we provide policy recommendation for the ecosystem management in the PRC. This review focuses on evaluating international experiences for terrestrial (mainly forest-related) ecosystems and provides a summary of work undertaken for the Asian Development Bank (ADB)-funded project on evaluating the PRC’s macro-environment strategy. An instructive way to classify environmental policy options is to do so in accordance with the nature and degree of regulatory intervention which would classify environmental policy options into three broad categories – namely:
1 command-and-control (CAC) regulation; 2 regulatory incentive-based policies; and 3 market-enabling policies – as shown in Figure 10.1 (Kolstad 2000).