chapter  6
2 Pages

Concluding remarks

It becomes clear now that the defused force indicators' 1€fJ!( )/' of the generalized force-indicator account are just like the predicates' F( )' of the conventional account. This is not surprising, if we recall that the development of the details of the force-indicator approach was a response to the difficulty posed by Geach's objection to expressivism (see §2). Geach pointed out that typical expressivist speech act analyses of 'non-descriptive' adjectives such as 'good' didn't match certain unasserted, embedded occurrences of these adjectives. His diagnosis, in 'Ascriptivism' (1960), is that the expressivist confuses predication with assertion, i.e. that he or she fails to distinguish the constant function of predication that predicates have on all their occurrences from the function they have only on asserted occurrences: that of asserting something of something. Assertion is related to predication in that one can assert something of something else by assertorically predicating the former of the latter.