chapter  II
12 Pages

RIGHTS AND DUTIES

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It is easy to see that the method concealed ambiguities, and these have been so exhaustively 4G?>B431H0B4A84B>5FA8C4ABC70CC74H=443=>C144G0<8=4374A4(D5R248CC70C8=?;024 of a reasoned statement of the ideal ends of society with which to compare the actual, the “Nature” which the Stoics and their long line of followers set up was a double-edged conception in which the notion of a simple and perfect rationality which might serve as the groundwork of ideal ends was blended with something supposedly real all the time and yet never actually realized, while the method of reaching it was by a series of abstractions which stripped social life of much of its wealth, and sometimes resulted in quite unreal and one-sided expressions. #4E4AC74;4BBC74!0F>5#0CDA4A4?A4B4=C43C74RABCBHBC4<0C820CC4<?CC>2>=248E40A0C8>=0;

system of law based on universal obligations, and claiming a higher authority than any 8=BC8CDC8>=B>5(C0C4BBD278C2>D;3140??;843F8C714=4R24=C45542C1H(C>829DA8BCB8= reforming Roman law, in humanizing slavery and sweeping away the archaic barbarities of the Roman family system. It could be applied in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as a check on tyranny, a plea for democracy, a method of overcoming international anarchy. It could be so used because, when all is said and done, it enshrined a real and profound truth. Locke is in the main right when he says: “The promises and bargains for truck, etc., between two men in Soldania, or between a Swiss and an Indian in the woods of America, are binding to them, though they are perfectly in a state of nature in reference to one another, for truth and keeping of faith belongs to man as man, and not as members of society.” 1 He is right because the duty of keeping faith and the right of expecting it to be kept hold of men as soon as they enter into the relation of a bargain. They are not established by any political institutions, but are principles which every political organization must accept under penalty of disorganization if it ignores them. Criticism turns on the phase “State of nature,” which as here used suggests that “by nature” men stand in casual temporary and external relations to one another. This is not what Locke really intends, for he conceives the state of nature as one in which men live sociably together without organized government. But the usage indicates, the real logical danger of the term nature and the conception of social contract. For beginning with abstractions-the omission of elements from things as we know them M8C8B50C0;;H40BHC>01BCA02CC>><D270=38=C78B20B4C>B:8?2;40A5A><C74BD1942C>50 civilized governance to the isolated individual in no social relations at all. When this is done, the

individual is clothed with rights which are made to dominate instead of securing the commongood, and are even divorced from duties because duties imply socialties.1