The new millennium: 2000–2005
This was a period which showed, with a vengeance, the interconnections between our four ‘battles’. Four themes and issues of great importance were now to the fore. The first two could be put, with some exaggeration, in Roman Imperial terms: ‘a currency and an army’, even if not, officially, a European army. The economic fate of the EU would not, to be sure, depend mainly on the performance of the euro: but that would be significant. And if the EU were to cut more of a figure on the larger stage, it would need at least some capability to project ‘hard power’. But crucial were the third and fourth issues, inextricably linked it seemed: that of (again) who was to come on board and under what terms and conditions (enlargement), and the never answered question: ‘What kind of animal is it?’ – in ‘constitutional’ terms: or is it to be in perpetual undefined flux?