Initiatives against transnational crime
The various counter-measures which so far have been ﬁelded against transnational organized crime were developed at both national and international level; they consist in institutions (including procedures) and legislation. After an introduction, which considers the processes of international crime control, the chapter is subdivided into two parts; the ﬁrst part considers some of institutions involved in the attempt to counter transnational crime-the verb “counter” is chosen with some care, since we shall never be able to “interdict” such crime. In fact, as Durkheim observed, “The more the group is spread out, although densely concentrated, the more the collective attention, dissipated over a wide area, becomes incapable of following the movements of each individual […]. The surveillance is less careful, because there are too many people and things to watch.”1 International institutions which play a role in the creation and enforcement of counter-measures include the United Nations system, Interpol, and a number of regional organizations, in particular Europol. Their history and present-day functioning will be examined. The second part of the chapter surveys relevant legislation, in particular the criminalization of money laundering. As an example of antimoney laundering eﬀorts there is a review of the situation in Thailand. The chapter on the one hand realizes and salutes the creation and devel-
opment of international law enforcement cooperation, from informal initiatives in the nineteenth century to a somewhat more developed system today; it does, however, concurrently question the eﬃciency of some of the measures proposed, their cost, and their severe impact on privacy rights.
These introductory remarks will ﬁrst, very brieﬂy, consider the historical development of international law enforcement, before a consideration of the amazing developments over the last quarter of a century.