This chapter marks a shift in focus from passive techniques, requiring little or no eﬀort, to more active techniques that require the individual to undergo a regime of training in order to enhance performance and/or learn new ways of behaving. One active technique that is long-established and in particular cultures represents a very traditional method of improving behaviour is that of meditation. According to Davidson et al. (2003) the use of meditation to improve health and performance is not only widespread but also growing in popularity. Thus, this chapter focuses on the potential performance-enhancing eﬀects of meditation.