chapter
5 Pages

Introduction

Of the principles that define modern democratic politics, citizenship and human rights transpire certainly as the most salient, indispensable and talked-about principles. Protective and empowering at the same time, they serve as the primary means for political subjectification and the anchoring point for securing democratic aspirations. For is there a twentieth-century struggle that has not been fought in the name of citizenship, if not human rights? And is there a political achievement that has not been celebrated in retrospect as a victory of citizenries and their basic rights? Although in determining whether it is citizenship or human rights that frame democratic struggles much depends on the historical period and particular circumstances we focus on, it is not an exaggeration to assume that, when it comes to consolidating democratic idea(l)s, both principles are central to their promotion and pursuit.