I have shown the US adaptation of Cubans who uprooted at different times to vary, in ways partially rooted in, and theoretically explained in terms of, their pre-immigration past. Existing theories of immigrant adaptation leave this important aspect of the adaptation of the foreign-born unaddressed. Below I briefly summarize differences in how Cuban immigrant waves adapted in the US and enmeshed themselves in homeland ties that bear the imprint of their variant pre-immigrant pasts. I then highlight the theoretical implications of the case study and their likely relevance for an improved understanding of other immigrant group experiences. I conclude the chapter by addressing how US Cuba policy might be improved upon to meet the range of Cuban immigrant wants, along with US national concerns.