CRITICAL SOCIAL CHALLENGES
Most theories of organization and professional action make positivist assumptions about progress, which is an implicit assumption regarding the notions of eﬀectiveness in organization theory72 and economics. Such theories promote the belief that by following the rules of practice (e.g. the organizational missions, ethical codes, and standards of practice) the world will become a better place. However, if we are open to a post-progressive view of balancing democratic social justice values with a realistic view of the public policy consequences and human action, then these overarching assumptions about the rules of practice and social progress should be subject to critique and doubt. It is possible, at least in some instances, that habitual actions governed by the rules of professionals and legal codes are sources of injustice. This postconventional, post-progressive moral dilemma should not be overlooked by aspiring or experienced professionals.