chapter  2
11 Pages

Spelling and punctuation

In this function the circumflex is placed on the following vowel (‘a’ or ‘u’):

• Fronted ‘g’

gâvur ‘infidel’

rüzgâr ‘wind’

tezgâh ‘counter’

• Fronted ‘k’

dükkân ‘shop’

Hakkâri (place name)

kâg˘ıt ‘paper’

kâr ‘profit’ (cf. kar ‘snow’)

mahkûm ‘condemned’

• Fronted ‘l’

The circumflex is now used mostly in proper names:

Halûk (male name)

Lâle (female name)

Elâzıg˘ (place name)

lale ‘tulip’

lazım ‘necessary’

lamba ‘lamp’

lastik ‘rubber’

A number of foreign personal and place names have traditional Turkicized forms:

Sokrat ‘Socrates’

Eflatun ‘Plato’

Venedik ‘Venice’

Londra ‘London’

Atina ‘Athens’

Cenevre ‘Geneva’

For the names of countries, see Appendix H.