The force of religion in global affairs is now the preoccupying concern of the international community. More specifically, the growth of Islam, particularly outside the Middle Eastern area, together with the violence that has occurred between Muslims and Christians, has threatened to destabilize countries and regions, few more so than in Africa. But neither Islam nor Christianity is a new faith in Africa; their heritage is both deep and profound. This chapter considers these two monotheistic religions and the way in which they have interacted with the continent. A case study focuses on the conflict between Muslim and Christian groups in Kano, northern Nigeria, based on research in the area, and a separate analysis on Islam, law and society aims to provide a preliminary understanding of Islam.