DID Is a Trauma Disorder
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is an outcome of psychological trauma that was early, chronic, and severe. A history of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse has been found in the vast majority of people with DID. In this sense, it is a chronic trauma disorder (Ross, 1989). In 1986, Putnam et al. found in their study of 100 subjects that 85-95% of the respondents reported a history of sexual or physical abuse. In later studies, Ross (1997) found that 88.5 to 96% of patients with DID in three large studies reported a history of sexual or physical abuse. Anderson and Alexander (1996) found that, as opposed to adult female incest survivors without DID, those with DID reported significantly more severe and earlier sexual abuse as well as more physical abuse. Brand, Classen, McNary, and Zaveri (2009) found that, in a sample of patients with dissociative disorders, 86% and 79% had suffered sexual and physical abuse, respectively.