chapter  2
Black Hand, Calabrians, and the Mafi a
Pages 22

As economic and political conditions worsened or refused to improve, emigration from Italy to the new world rose. Immigration to New York from Italy jumped from 74,687 in 1890, to 145,429 by 1900.1 Between 1900 and 1910, 2.1 million Italians came to the United States, over 80 percent from the south where secret criminal societies were active.2 Newly accommodated Italian immigrants tended to huddle into subgroups. “A spirit of regionalism, or campanilismo, prevailed,” that could erupt into hostilities with outsiders but which could also lead to cooperation.3